Causes and treatments for back pain

Low back pain most often occurs due to degenerative and dystrophic changes in the spine. The intervertebral disc is damaged when weights are lifted, congestion at rest, and when moving fall. The bulging of the annulus fibrosus through fractures and cracks in the nucleus pulposus forms a hernia. Instability in the spine contributes to the development of osteophytes (spondylosis), damage to the intervertebral joints and ligaments (spondyloarthrosis), osteochondrosis, which is accompanied by pathological processes in the sacroiliac joints.

In addition to compression changes, pain is due to reflex stimulation of receptors whose impulse goes to motor neurons in the spinal cord. Muscle tone increases and over time pathologies appear in the muscle tissue. Spinal pain may be due to the presence of tumors, multiple myeloma, systemic autoimmune diseases.

back pain

Causes of pain and their types

Painful sensations are dull, sharp, painful, burning and throbbing. They can spread to the entire back, give to adjacent areas or be local. An unpleasant sensation develops in different ways, it can appear suddenly or build up over a long period of time.

A symptom is also classified according to the cause of its occurrence:

  • primary pain is the result of degeneration of the musculoskeletal system, lesions in it;
  • the secondary type occurs in pathological processes in the body that are not associated with the lower back.

There are two types of pain:

  • Periodic are characteristic of strong physical exertion, acute diseases and physiological properties, they may radiate to another part of the body or spread over the affected area. After removing the cause of the occurrence, they cease to bother a person.
  • Constant pain is the result of deep damage to joints, tissues and muscles. With the help of drugs, the symptoms are temporarily eliminated, but they recur.

Indications for extended diagnostics

To determine the method of pain relief, a further examination is required to identify the true cause of the syndrome. Analyzes must be performed in case of:

  • atypical manifestation of pain (no increase or decrease in discomfort when moving the body), unusual localization (for example, radiating discomfort from the back to the perineum, abdomen, rectum, anus, vagina);
  • relief of symptoms while standing and pumping while lying down;
  • changes in back pain due to going to the toilet, eating, intercourse;
  • previous injuries to the spine or hip joint
  • pain accompanied by vomiting, fever;
  • diagnosed oncology;
  • the presence of mental disorders in the behavior.

Further examinations are performed in hospital when the patient is admitted to neurology or other departments that offer a laboratory for diagnosis of the alleged disease.

An X-ray of the spine is performed in several projections, a general blood sample is examined, an extended biochemical analysis is performed, where the level of creatinine, calcium, glucose, phosphates and other substances are shown in the blood. The method of computer diagnostics and magnetic resonance imaging is very common. Bone scintography is used to examine bone tissue.

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system

Unpleasant sensations in the back occur for the following reasons:

  • Intervertebral osteochondrosis includes several types of pathologies characterized by dystrophy or degeneration. Due to the disease, articular cartilage and bones are loosened and destroyed, nerve endings are involved in the pathological change. Osteochondrosis causes the development of hernia, lumbar sciatica, sciatica, protrusion (bulging of intervertebral disc without rupture of the fibrous ring).
  • Scoliosis is a curvature of the spine where the shoulder line is asymmetrical. It is accompanied by deformation of the skeleton, decreased posture, protrusion of hump to the right or left in the intercostal space. It is classified as an innate or acquired form.
  • Spondylosis occurs due to the natural aging of vertebrae and joints in the lumbar region, over time the pain increases as the joints wear out and mobility is lost.
  • Lumbago is characterized by acute discomfort in the lumbar spine due to destructive disorders of the vertebrae. Painful sensations occur when weights are lifted incorrectly, more often in men. With lumbago, movement in the lower back is limited, the absence of treatment is dangerous when outgrowing destructive processes to an irreversible stage.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis (ankylosing spondylitis) is characterized by loss of mobility of the lumbar joints, is a chronic inflammation with a significant spread of connective tissue.
  • Osteomyelitis is a purulent-necrotic inflammation of the bone marrow, bones and surrounding soft tissue. The disease occurs due to infection with purulent mycobacteria and pyogenic (pus secreting) bacteria.
  • Osteoporosis is formed as a result of abnormal development of bone tissue due to a violation of the supply of phosphorus and calcium, while bone density is reduced, leading to their frequent damage.
  • Congenital or acquired difference in leg length (more than 3 cm).

These diseases require going to the clinic for examination and serious treatment. Sometimes therapy only helps relieve symptoms for a while, and a surgical method is used for a complete cure.

back pain in the lumbar region

Kidney disease

Due to a violation of the kidneys in the lower back, discomfort can occur and it can damage the left, right, sometimes in the central part of the back. The causes of the symptom may be the following pathologies:

  • Descent of the kidneys. This is a condition in which the movement of the organ is performed beyond the allowable norm (displacement from the kidney bed is provided 2 cm down and up). In nephroptosis, the kidney is called the vagus if it can deviate by 10 cm.
  • Kidney failure is a condition in which no urine is formed. The patient notices that he has a sharp pain in the lower back and his health condition is deteriorating rapidly.
  • Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the renal pelvis that involves the nearby tissue of the urogenital system. With such a disease, urine discharge can not be disturbed and pain in the lower back and left is due to the intensity of the inflammatory process.
  • Gout can cause discomfort when getting up from a sitting position or other movement. With the disease, the natural metabolism of uric acid is interrupted, it accumulates in the lumbar joints and limits their mobility.
  • Renal colic is a common pathology. In her, pain syndrome occurs for various reasons. The most common are damage to the ureter by a stone, its rupture, obstruction of the upper urinary tract due to blood clots, formation, pus or mucus. Low back pain due to renal colic is characterized by a sudden onset at any time of the day, in motion or at rest.
  • Diabetic nephropathy is more typical of people with diabetes mellitus (75%) and is a complex lesion of arteries, glomeruli, renal tubules as a result of changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in kidney tissue. Pain with such a pathology gives any part of the back as well as the groin and abdomen.
  • Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli (glomeruli) and can lead to kidney failure. A rapid progressive and chronic form is noted.
  • Kidney stone disease is not always accompanied by pain in the lower back, it can be difficult to determine their location.
  • Hydronephrosis is characterized by enlargement of the renal pelvis and discomfort. Requires additional diagnostics.

Gynecological diseases

Pain syndrome occurs in women due to diseases:

  • Frequent localization of discomfort with uterine myoma, vulvitis, adnexitis, genitals is the abdomen, but pain can occur in the lower back to the left and right.
  • During pregnancy, the lower back hurts and it hurts to walk, but such symptoms occur for natural reasons and are explained by the load from the growing fetus on the musculoskeletal system, therefore there is no need for treatment.
  • Menopause is accompanied by pain syndrome due to a violation of the blood supply to the internal organs of the small pelvis, which in turn is a consequence of an imbalance in hormones during this period.
  • Unpleasant sensations can constantly occur due to psychosomatics. In this case, the woman should consult a psychotherapist and psychologist.
  • The consequences of surgery, such as abortion, can be accompanied by discomfort in the abdomen and move to the lumbar vertebrae due to involuntary contractions in the uterus or development of inflammation.
  • Hormonal disorders during the menstrual cycle, release of the follicle from the ovary and its movement through the fallopian tubes, an increase in the uterus during menstruation causes pain in the lower back and lower back.
back pain in gynecological diseases

Other causes of low back pain

Lumbar discomfort can be caused by diseases of the human body's systems:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis refers to systemic pathologies, more often women suffer from it. This is a chronic inflammation that develops in the lumbar joints and involves nearby cartilage and muscles. The disease occurs due to autoimmune disorders in the body.
  • Thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis develop due to partial or complete cessation of blood flow in the deep veins. Lumbar discomfort is felt after a long walk when you are on your feet. Such pain radiates to the buttocks and legs.
  • Atherosclerosis in the last stage causes discomfort in the lower back.

Treatment of pain due to musculoskeletal problems

To eliminate lumbar discomfort caused by a violation of the functionality of the musculoskeletal system, different drugs are used depending on the root cause and the stage of the underlying disease.

They are used in several forms, from tablets to intramuscular injections.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

To reduce the painful sensation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. These drugs lower body temperature, inflammation and fever.

NSAIDs from the group of phenylacetic acid derivatives are popular in the treatment of low back pain syndrome. These drugs are safe and effective, have an advantage over other painkillers as they do not adversely affect metabolic processes in intervertebral disc. The therapeutic dose sufficient to relieve severe discomfort is from 75 to 150 mg per day. Today, the rate is ingested in several doses. To accelerate the analgesic effect, rectal suppositories are used or the drug is administered intramuscularly.

Muscle relaxants

If NSAIDs do not have a positive effect in the treatment of pain, muscle relaxants are used. These drugs reduce skeletal muscle and muscle movement - sometimes to the point where function completely ceases. They start treatment with a standard dose and keep it for several weeks. Practice shows that the addition of muscle relaxants to the complex treatment of pain syndrome provides a stable regression of discomfort and improves joint mobility. Combinations of different types of these drugs are not used.

taking pills to relieve low back pain

Analgesics and corticosteroids

To numb the back if it hurts, use narcotic analgesics that are relevant in medicine for a long time. They are based on opioids, thanks to which drugs provide relief. Such drugs are prescribed by a doctor (they are sold only at a pharmacy by prescription); you can not treat pain with these drugs alone.

To eliminate the syndrome, corticosteroids are used in case of degenerative disorders of articular tissues.

Medication partially repairs cartilage and prevents further deterioration.


Injections are used if previous medication has not had the desired effect. For blockade directly in the lumbar region, drugs from the ether group and the amide series are used.

A blockade is a procedure to relieve muscle spasms at the site of pain; injections are made into the nerve plexus, including the paravertebral region, through a catheter. The effect of it is short-lived, but it helps relieve severe attacks.

Use ointments, creams and blemishes

Using gels and creams, they also remove the discomfort. They are applied directly to the sore spot. NSAID-based products can be used. Combined products have a more extended effect.

For a distracting and local irritating effect, warming ointments are used with a regenerating chondroprotective effect, which dilates the blood vessels, resulting in improved nutrition of vertebral tissues, cartilage, accelerated metabolic processes in them.

The use of plasters is popular because of its convenient method of application and quick action. The drug is impregnated with the drug and applied to the site of pain. With this method, overdose is excluded.

Other ways to affect painful foci

Physiotherapy allows you to warm up the muscles, improve blood circulation and improve the therapeutic effect of the main drugs.

Paraffin applications are used, effective in case of shooting pain. The procedure consists of layer-by-layer application of wax or paraffin on the skin with a total thickness of 1 cm, covered with polyethylene, then a warm blanket. The duration is at least one hour, with daily use the course of treatment is one month. Therapeutic training is effective, which is used in periods of non-exacerbated disease course. Exercise also reduces the risk of recurrent back pain.

Massage is not performed in all cases, as in some pathologies it can harm the body. In this case, they are not acting in the sore spot, but in the surrounding area. The procedure should be performed by an experienced massage therapist, you should not do this alone.

Mud therapy is also used as a distraction.

Pain relief for gynecological problems

Complex antibacterial agents are used to eliminate the original cause of pain. Use special drugs to reduce bacteriological infection in the vagina. In the vulva area, an ointment containing antibiotics and antiseptics is used.

Inflammation of infectious glands accompanied by low back pain is treated with antibiotics taking into account the sensitivity of the microorganism, ultrawaves are used as a physiotherapeutic effect. The abscesses of the genitals, especially the abscesses of the Bartholin's gland, are surgically eliminated by dissection. If the pain is moderate and the swelling does not bother the patient, hormonal drugs are prescribed, which are only considered a prophylaxis before the operation.

GnRH antagonists reduce the amount of estrogen in the body. They are used for uterine fibroids, hyperplasia, endometriosis. Hormonal drugs are effective in shrinking the uterus before surgery. However, their long-term use leads to the development of osteoporosis.

In some cases, the nodules after treatment begin to grow and cause back pain after treatment. Unpleasant sensations are relieved with the help of oral contraceptives. Antigonadotropin treatment is used to relieve the feeling of low back pain. These drugs have many side effects so they are rarely used.

If the growth of neoplasm leads to severe pain and threatens health, surgery is needed to remove it. During menopause, and if the woman is not planning to become pregnant, complete elimination of the uterus is recommended. In other cases, only fibroids are removed by laparoscopy (through small incisions in the abdomen).

Popular hormonal drugs are NSAIDs. Antispasmodic drugs are also used.

medication for back pain

Help with kidney pain

Acute kidney pain is stopped by taking antispasmodic drugs that can increase the lumen of the ureter and ensure urine flow.

Acute symptoms require the use of combined medicines containing both an analgesic and an antispasmodic with anti-inflammatory components. You can take 2 tablets at a time, in severe cases intramuscular injections are given. Antipyretics based on analgin help with kidney pain.

Traditional treatment methods

Folk recipes help relieve low back pain, but before using them, make sure that there are no diseases that are dangerous to human life and health that require timely medical treatment or even surgery. Most popular methods:

  • A towel soaked in a combined infusion of St. John's wort, thyme, chamomile and black elderberry flowers is applied to the sore spot. For cooking, take 1 tsp. raw or dried raw materials, pour a glass of boiling water and leave for half an hour. Then the compress is removed and goes to bed.
  • Garlic ointment helps a lot. To prepare it, take a head, paint it in an accessible way, mix it with a small portion of Vaseline and lemon juice. A sore spot on the back is smeared with the finished composition.
  • Mustard baths relieve pain. To do this, take a glass of mustard powder and pour it into warm water. The bath is taken until it cools down, then rinse the skin with clean water and cover with a blanket.
  • A compress of honey with vinegar (1 tbsp each) relieves pain. The resulting mixture is placed on a cabbage leaf and applied to the problem area.
  • Radish or horseradish is chopped on a grater combined with sour cream and placed on a napkin made of natural material. The compress is attached with a warm scarf or handkerchief.
  • Dry leaves of a large burdock steamed with boiling water are applied to the sore spot and isolated.
  • To improve blood flow in the tissues, rubbing the back with honey is used. The massage is performed without pressure, but the movement must be intense. Also use an alcoholic tincture of eucalyptus purchased at the pharmacy.
  • A compress is made of cracked beets, the mass is twisted out, the cake obtained from a vegetable is mixed with 1 liter. petroleum. Using a napkin, transfer the composition to the sore spot and firm, wrapped. This compaction is left overnight.
  • Use grated laundry soap along with white incense, mix them in the same amount, add 2 beaten egg yolks. The agent is applied to the back, a napkin is placed on top and fastened with a bandage. Hold for approx. 2-3 hours.

Treatment of back pain is performed in different ways, but diagnosis of the underlying disease that causes unpleasant symptoms is always required.